Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

PDF Link: Annotated Bibliography

Levinson, Paul. Digital McLuhan: A guide to the information millennium. Routledge, 2003.

In this book, the author concludes that the obscure theories presented by McLuhan in old era could be applied to the modern digital society. He tried to user this book to provide guiding and orientation to the digital era. The author’s argumentation shows that the soft and dialectical criticism to the McLuhan’s theories of medium. The philosophy research methods for the McLuhan’s theories included anthroposophy which emphasize the person is the host of the medium to create the content of medium and have selective abilities. The emphasizing on the people who could run functions in the medium transmission process provide useful resources to the study of people who play essential roles in the medium.

Meyrowitz, Joshua. “We liked to watch: Television as progenitor of the surveillance society.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 625.1 (2009): 32-48.

Meyrowitz argued that in the modern society the changes of medium would bring lots of influences to the changes of society, the changes of society would lead to the changes of human’s physical actions or phycological presentation. Especially in the electronic medium, the author asserted that it could effectively and dynamically bring lots of influences to the audiences. The author systematically connect the medium the changes of the society and human’s actions and analyzed the relationship between the variable media circumstances and human’s behavior from dynamic aspect. The essentials of the author’s argument is put the changes of audiences’ behavior into the medium situation analysis. I will use this article to provide and support and examples to show the medium did have vital effects to the human’s behavior. 

Postman, Neil. Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business. Penguin, 2006.

The part 1 of this book reported the related meaning to the McLuhan’s theories of media and his own understanding to the signified implication of medium is the messages. The author’s unique interpretation included every kind of medium provide new platform for consideration, presentation and emotional expression. Through this extent analysis, the author asserted the specific medium could create particular symbols and characters. In fact, he pointed out the medium is similar to the metaphor that could help us to define the media world through hidden and effective ways. The theories of medium is metaphor presented by author are really useful for the paradigm of analyzing for the function of medium that vividly present the media world where we can controlled and influenced by it.

Stevenson, Nick. Understanding media cultures: Social theory and mass communication. Sage, 2002.

According to the argument in the chapter 4 in this book, the author explained the the most significant part of the medium is that special and effective transmission methods rather than the carried culture or social problems. However, the author thought that culture is transmitted by the the mass communication medium. The research of mass communication medium could relate to other respects of the society and different communicated medium could change social and interpersonal relationships. The book suggested the diversified of medium culture could set up a profound meaning to the mass communication area. The study about  presentative form of medium can be applied to the study of transmission pattern of medium. 

Wasser, Frederick. “Current views of McLuhan.” Journal of Communication 48.3 (1998): 146-152.

In this short paper, Wasser examined the deep connotation and profound understanding of five published books about the theories of McLuhan. Through diversified perspective and various observation angles, the author gave his comments which represent fair analysis and objective attitude to the different argument about the theories of McLuhan. Although these five books pointed out that the effects of McLuhan’s theories has lead the trends of research methods about mass communication influences. Some of them regard McLuhan as a linguist, or literate analyst even poet. The major interpretations and reviews for these papers revealed the deliberate re-thinking about the essential point of McLuhan’s theories. The reliance on the rational thought about the numerous scholar discussions provided a deep and continuous thinking to the new meaning of McLuhan’s theories in the changeable media background. The positive and affirmative comments for McLuhan’s research methods have significant implications and useful reference.


In the new media era, how can we protect our privacy?

From a legal sense, privacy is already happening, ethical, legitimate thing that could show the people’s rights or emotional activity.The  owners of privacy must be citizens who are not to be deprived of civil rights and have the appropriate and complete privacy. Conversely, due to various reasons people are deprived of civil rights would lead to loses of some privacy. In the new media age, some personal network applications have the complete and large influence of mass communication. In this situation, the privacy maybe intruded and destroyed by some unsure factors. Self dissemination of information must pay attention to ethical principles and meet the basic social ethics.  In recent years, with the trend of new media era as the background, the privacy issues gradually aroused the concern of various aspects. With the development of technology of new media, everyone’s privacy tacitly destroyed by some objective factors, especially in some special incidents or the maelstrom of public opinion. This requires us continually improve the media literacy and protect our rights of privacy.


In the new media era, privacy breaks through the traditional media gatekeepers and so that communication connected with peoples are more convenient and efficient. In the era of new media, as a result of the new media technology itself have the character of digital, networked, multimedia, functional storage, personalized and interactive features, leading to great changes that have taken place in protections of privacy. First of all, privacy can facilitate spreading on a large scale in some specific situation.  In the era of traditional media, the personal privacy is really not so easy to disseminate under the not developed enough technology and controlled by government department. As long as your privacy was identified as worthless, the traditional medium will spread your privacy. Coming to the new media era, Everyone can take advantage of the smart mobile phone,tablet computers and other medium, through weibo (Chinse twitter) personal applications such as micro  BBS space distribute and transmit information breakthrough the traditional media gatekeepers policies For instance, several popular weibo uses is now more than three hundred million, celebrity events was spread like bacteria. Everyone became a communicator and personal media also has the nature of the mass communication. The other perspective is the spread of the privacy of active phenomenon. In the era of new media, there are some people in the network actively and intentionally spread their own privacy and become the so-called “Internet Celebrity”through a special way. Moreover, the phenomenon of intervention of new media technology makes the commercial factors to intrude of the privacy right is more and more obvious. Especially, our personal information such as phone number, personal information is useda and even become a commodity to be bought and sold in the black market. In addition, the media continually insist the entertainment way would have impact on privacy. The reason for other people’s privacy are so magic is that the person has a desire to voyeurism and have the desire to reveal hidden things.  The privacy of celebrities have been cast in the role of gossip, divorce childrens’ news and all sorts of privacy are breaking news.  So there is also a profession called the paparazzi, specially to the gossip, reveal others’ privacy. In fact, the internet also to provide them with all sorts of medium platform and ask them to do some adventures media programs. When they invite some guest, they could create a buzz for them and intentionally spread of the privacy. Especially the spread of negative privacy is really convenient, the negative effect on the social morality is obvious at this point.

The Group Characters of Hackers

As the representative group in the large and wide network environment,  the feature of hackers deeply effected by the network development and they gradually have their own distinctions in the online world. The group of hackers has developed into a really complicated and fickle colony. Their characteristic mainly reflects in the following respects:

From a gender perspective: most of hackers are males, the famous hacker in the history of the top ten are all men. This works are concerning with the hacker’s own requirements: it need to repeat the tedious work and boring waiting at several boil overnight, the work itself is extremely challenging. In addition, compared with women, men are more aggressive desire to conquer. However, from the 1980s, women began to appear to be hackers, and the number is gradually increasing.

From the point of view of personality:  the majority of them are  introverted and rebellious. Writing programs need to wait a long time and they must be bored with numerous coding. While introverted person tend to be unsatisfactory in real life where they have difficulties to coexist with classmates or colleagues, leading to hardly find their social position. However, in the virtual world they could find their self-esteem and the sense of belonging through the network success. At the same time,  they could find  a catharsis of the window on the Internet.

From the standpoint of ability: they are so smart. Most of hackers have high IQ and strong ability of creation, which is also the precondition to write high quality and complex programing code. Some of them tend to have ingenuity on the handle of the hacking talents that include various operating skills by learning computer language, programming, offensive and defensive actions. On the other hand, performance on the breakthrough of the technology is often driven by hackers in the history of the development of computer technology and network.

I also find a Interesting Hacker Characters Collections from where netizens use analogy to put some TV or public figure to generalize the feature of hackers. In the game of cat and mouse, hacker skills and network security technology has get rapid development. In the computer and network system,  network security protectors who can be assimilate to deers won’t update system and continuously strengthen the network security protection without the existence of hackers who are assimilate to wolves. Only in the both sides of the offensive and defensive, each other could develop faster and competitively.

The ethic of hacker related to a network of social morality bring great challenge. The lack of basic moral values ​​of social reality and social responsibility of hackers who always emphasize absolutely fair and free. But the reality of this society tend to be relatively fair and free and it is associated with personal wealth, knowledge, experience and personal class which is closely related with individual’s social and economic roles consistent. If hackers only emphasizes these kind of unrealistic absolute fairness and freedom, it is possible to take the risk by virtue negative skills.


Research paper proposal

Direct-viewing and reflection about  

“The medium is the message”

The premise of “The medium is the message” is that he believes the media research methods should not only consider the content but also the medium on which the operation could be triggered. In the past,  people maybe are not aware of psychology effects and social consequences of medium. Thus, in the paper of “The medium is the message,”  McLuhan informed us we should learn how to gradually and persistently accustomed to splitting and cutting of all kinds of things as a means of control transaction. The content of media once made us turn a blind eye for nature and essence of the medium. Nevertheless, we need get the further and deeper approach to reflect and explore how the medium can become a kind of message and effect us.

1. What influences did the medium bring to the society and individuals?

We need  to think about the extension of a new dimension for medium in communication affairs. The main point is concentrate on the consequences of the impact of media and how t produce it in society. At the same time, we can not ignore the scale of influence which refers to the practice of people in the medium will produce the relevant standards and methods. The specific content of such standards and the way of medium would determine the nature and substantial of the medium itself. Generally, the common view is that the medium is merely a tool or a carrier. The content of medium which have an impact on the audiences rather than the medium itself. However, McLuhan indicated that the medium itself is a kind of the content and inseparable with content. Moreover,  the medium itself has impact on audiences and the direct consequence of medium produced by actual practice will generate new standards which is not only determined by content of medium.

2. Wether a medium can be another kind of medium’s content?

The substance of any of the medium must contain some text, audio, images or other  symbols can be transmitted. And these things itself are a kind of medium. Such as the content of word is text, the text is content of printing which also can be the content of telegram. The extension of the concept of medium is wide and broad. media must contain a product of the human’s spirit that contains the qualities which people could understand. And spirit itself is a medium and can be transmitted. External form of expression of the medium determines the content of the medium, such as language of broadcast is very different from the the language of television or newspaper. But the nature and characters of these languages are dissimilar among different carrier due to the substance of medium is disparate. A medium could not have isolated significance and existing and any kind of medium could achieve its own significance and value only in the interaction with other medium.

3. What is the messages or content of medium?

The vital role of medium in the dissemination of mass communication and function of medium in the process of human interaction are deserved to research. We can clearly see that We saw deer McLuhan not only get inspiration from Shakespeare who has numerous illustrious literary works and also get lots of circumstantial evidence from the doctrine of economists, film, painting, theater arts, even military history and even medical theory to illustrate the idea of “the medium is the message”. The pivotal and crucial key in whole of human interactive and communicated society is medium the constant and durable development rather than those fleeting information or messages.

Bibliography list:

Czitrom, Daniel. Media and the American mind from Morse to McLuhan. México, 1985.

Marchand, Philip. Marshall McLuhan: the medium and the messenger: a biography. MIT Press, 1998.

McLuhan, Eric, and Frank Zingrone, eds. Essential McLuhan. House of Anansi, 1995.

McLuhan, Marshall. “Understanding media: the extensions of man (1st MIT Press ed.).” Cambridge, Mass (1994).

Williams, Raymond. Television: Technology and cultural form. Psychology Press, 2003.

PDF link: Research Paper Proposal